The Paris Agreement was adopted on 12 December 2015 at COP21 in Paris, France, by the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Vienna Convention on Treaty Law provides for the adoption of the formal act, the form and content of an agreement. In adopting the Paris Agreement, each of the contracting parties approved the text of the Paris Agreement. This does not mean that the parties to the UNFCCC will automatically become parties to the Paris Agreement. Although this is not a requirement, it is very likely that the European Union and its 28 Member States will table their instruments for ratification, acceptance or approval on the same day or days or weeks following the European Union. This has been the case for both the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. After the signing, the contracting parties formally adhere to the Paris Agreement. This can be done by filing with the UN Secretary-General one of the different types of instruments – instruments of “ratification, acceptance or approval.” There is no deadline for countries to present these instruments. A country may table its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval on the same day that it signs or deposits it much later separately. If a country has not signed in a year,000 countries can later join the Paris Agreement by submitting an “accession” instrument.
For more information on each of these instruments, see below. The Paris Agreement was launched at the signing on April 22, 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  After the agreement was ratified by several EU member states in October 2016, there were enough countries that had ratified the agreement to produce enough greenhouse gases in the world for the agreement to enter into force.  The agreement came into force on November 4, 2016.  The Paris Agreement, marked by a historic agreement once adopted, owes its success not only to the return of a favourable framework for climate protection and sustainable development, but also to efforts to review the management of international climate negotiations. The Paris Agreement is supported by new initiatives that will all be adapted to the difficulties identified at the previous COP. This innovative approach is based on four elements: the adoption of a universal agreement. Define each state`s national contributions to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Although the text of the agreement does not mention the content of these contributions, it obliges signatory states to establish a contribution plan, implement it and raise amounts every five years. Civil society`s participation in the negotiation process through the action programme adopted in November 2016, which brings together civil society initiatives from 180 countries. In 2015, members of civil society were appointed at a high level to facilitate civil society participation in the intergovernmental process. The financial commitment of developed countries to contribute up to $100 billion a year from 2020. This funding should give priority to the states most affected by the effects of climate change, “Accession” being the place where a country becomes a party to an international agreement already negotiated and signed by other countries. It has the same legal effect as ratification, acceptance and approval. Membership usually takes place after the agreement comes into force, but it can also take place in advance depending on the terms of the agreement.