Obsolescence Agreement

In this way, programmed obsolescence seems wasteful. According to Cartridge World, a company that recycles printer cartridges and offers cheaper substitutes, in North America alone, 350 million cartridges (not even empty) end up in landfills each year. Beyond waste, all these additional productions can also damage the environment. Russell Jacoby, who wrote in the 1970s, finds that intellectual production has succumbed to the same model of programmed obsolescence, used by producing companies to generate an ever-increasing demand for their products. “This cartel is the most obvious example” of the origins of the planned obsolescence, “because these papers were found,” says Giles Slade, author of the book Made to Break: Technology and Obsoles in Americacence, a story of strategy and its consequences. They stick to light bulbs as a product and are among the most emblematic case studies on programmed obsolescence. Planned systemic obsolescence is the deliberate attempt to render a product obsolete by changing the system in which it is used to make it more difficult to use. Common examples of planned systemic obsolescence are the non-adaptation of forward compatibility in the software or routine modification of screw design or fittings, so they cannot be operated easily with existing tools. This can be designed either to deliberately cause age or by interface standards that are replaced by better standards that were not available as the product was designed, such as series ports, parallel ports and PS/2 ports, which are largely replaced by USB on newer PC motherboards in the 2000s or usurpers. Philip Kotler argues that “a lot of planned obsolescence is the functioning of technological and competitive forces in a free society – forces that lead to increasingly efficient goods and services.” [31] In the United States, automotive design reached a turning point in 1924, when the U.S. domestic auto market began to reach saturation. To maintain unit sales, General Motors CEO Alfred P. Sloan Jr.

proposed annual design changes for the model year to convince car owners that they should buy a new replacement each year, an idea borrowed by the bicycle industry, although the concept is often wrongly attributed to Sloan. [9] Critics have called its strategy “planned obsolescence.”